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Autor(en): 
  • Chakrapong Chaikong
  • Comparisons of beef buffalo and beef cattle production systems in northeastern Thailand 
     

    (Buch)
    Dieser Artikel gilt, aufgrund seiner Grösse, beim Versand als 2 Artikel!


    Übersicht
     
    Lieferstatus:   i.d.R. innert 4-7 Tagen versandfertig
    Veröffentlichung:  2010  
    Genre:  Naturwissensch., Medizin, Technik 
    ISBN:  9783869554082 
    EAN-Code: 
    9783869554082 
    Verlag:  Cuvillier Verlag 
    Einband:  Kartoniert  
    Sprache:  English  
    Dimensionen:  H 212 mm / B 149 mm / D 12 mm 
    Gewicht:  214 gr 
    Seiten:  134 
    Bewertung: Titel bewerten / Meinung schreiben
    Inhalt:
    The goal of this study was to compare production systems and potential for further development
    of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in northeastern Thailand aiming at an improvement of
    production and as a consequence of farmers' livelihoods. The specific objectives were:
    1. to better understand and re-examine characteristics of the livestock farms and reasons for
    keeping livestock,
    2. to assess socio-economic and livelihood benefits of the livestock for the farmers,
    3. to investigate the livestock husbandry including farm management, feeding and breeding
    practices,
    4. to explore farmers' perceptions of favourable traits of buffaloes and cattle and reasons for
    the decline of the buffalo population,
    5. to investigate social and environmental impacts as well as problems and needs of the
    livestock farming according to the farmers' point of view.
    The following hypotheses were tested to achieve the objectives of the study:
    1. Characteristics of livestock farming and reasons for keeping livestock differ between beef
    buffalo and beef cattle farms and between herd sizes.
    2. Differences between beef buffalo and beef cattle farms and between herd sizes have an
    effect on socio-economics and livelihoods of the farmers.
    3. There are differences in farm management, feeding management and breeding practices
    between beef buffalo and beef cattle farms and between herd sizes.
    4. Beef buffalo farms have a lower level of farm inputs and a higher potential for improving
    the production.
    5. Community and environmental conflicts are caused by livestock farming depending on
    animal species and herd size.
    This study was conducted in the province of the Nakhon Ratchasima, located in the lower part of
    northeastern Thailand (as shown in Figure 3.1, in Chapter 3). The multi-state sampling method
    was used to choose the farms based on the livestock production census in 2006 obtained from the
    Nakhonratchasima Provincial Livestock Office, Department of Livestock Development. Based on
    this data, 121 beef buffalo and beef cattle farms, respectively, were selected randomly. Between
    October 2007 and May 2008, a single-visit, multiple-subject survey was carried out using faceto-
    face interviews. The recall, observation and measurement method was used to complete a pretested,
    semi-structured questionnaire. The opinions and views of the farmers were gathered by
    open-ended questions. Questionnaires included farm characteristics, importance of livestock,
    socio-economic benefits of the animals, feed resources, feeding management, herd structures and
    breeding practices, favourable traits of buffalo and cattle, reasons for the decline of the buffalo
    population as well as constraints and needs for the development of livestock farming. All data
    were statistically analyzed to describe the livestock farming systems and to compare beef buffalo
    and beef cattle farms and sizes of herds.
    Characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming as well as the roles and the socio-economic
    benefits of the livestock to the keepers are presented in Chapter 4. Most of the farms were
    integrated crop-livestock systems with small farm size (7.9 ha), whereof less than half of the area
    was used for livestock. Farm activities were mainly done by family members while employees
    were only found on large farms. The most important reason for keeping animals was income
    generation (80 % of all responses). This could be classified into accumulation of wealth or
    savings (22 %), covering expected (19 %) and unexpected (19 %) expenses, and regular (11 %)
    and additional (9 %) sources of cash income. Besides this, improvement of the social status was
    mentioned (18 %). Only 2 % of the farmers kept the animals for draught power, inherited asset,
    manure source and conservation aspect. Most of planned and unplanned expenses of households
    during the last 5 years were covered by selling livestock (58 %) and other agricultural products
    (19 %). The more animals the farmers kept the better the dwelling conditions, the larger the
    number of household assets and the more access to commercial health insurances the farmers
    had. The results confirm the important roles of buffaloes and cattle in the livelihood strategies of
    rural households.
    Chapter 5 presents feed resources for beef buffaloes and beef cattle throughout the year and
    feeding management of the livestock farms. Most of the livestock farms (94 %) practiced a
    herding system while tethering was used only by smallholders. The animals were kept on small
    pasture areas (3.1 ha) with very low pasture allowance (0.1 ha TLU-1, TLU = Tropical Livestock
    Units). During rainy season feed was obtained mostly from communal grasslands while harvested
    crop fields, shared by the community, became the most important source of feed during dry
    season. Therefore, major limitations of feed supply were low quantity and quality because of
    limited resources, variation of cropping patterns and seasonal fluctuations. Due to the lack of
    lands, low investment in pasture cultivation and seasonal limitations, farmers were not able to
    offer green forages to their animals throughout the year. Crop residues were used to fulfil
    animals' requirements during feed shortage or throughout the year. Because of high cost and low
    availability, farmers rarely practiced feed supplementation even though breeding animals were
    given the highest priority for supplementation. An extensive feeding system is mainly practiced
    on resource-poor farms, especially buffalo farms. The risk of feed deficiency is increasing if
    more animals are kept.
    Herd structures, breed compositions and breeding systems of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms
    are reported in Chapter 6. The herd size in this study area was on average 39 buffaloes and 42
    cattle per farm with a high variation. The size of herd had slightly increased over the previous
    years. Animals born within the herd were important sources of replacing buffaloes, indicating a
    high risk of inbreeding, while beef cattle farms imported animals from off-farm resources.
    Artificial insemination (AI) was not practiced for buffaloes while beef cattle farms adopted both
    natural and AI services. Damage of female's reproductive tract (38 % of responses) was stated as
    the most important problem of AI. Lack of semen was stated by buffalo farmers as a limitation of
    AI. Traits related to beef production were stated as high priority for buffalo selection, while cattle
    farmers preferred an attractive appearance. Thai swamp buffaloes, which are superior in beef
    production traits, comprised up to 91 % of the buffalo herd. On the contrary, crossbreds of native
    cattle and Brahman, and of native, Brahman and Indo-Brazilian cattle (88 % of the herd), having
    a more attractive appearance, predominated over the pure Thai native cattle breed (5 % of the
    herd). Native breeding bulls were not included in breeding programmes of cattle, which may
    result in the loss of genetic resources of local cattle in this area.
    In Chapter 7, competitiveness of beef buffaloes and beef cattle, influences of animal farming on
    local community and environment, constraints and needs stated by the farmers, and reasons for
    the decline of buffalo farming are described. Buffaloes impressed the farmers by their higher
    adaptation and productivity under extensive management as well as their superior beef
    production potential, fertility and longevity. However, the lack of water resources for wallowing
    was addressed as the most important reason for the decrease of buffalo farming (63 % of
    farmers). Due to a possible cause of water contamination and community conflicts, buffaloes
    sometimes were not allowed to enter public or private water resources. Deficiency of feed and
    water from communal resources (61 % of farmers) and the need to access more of these resources
    (43 % of farmers), particularly by large-scale farmers, were mentioned as the main constraints of
    livestock farming. Livestock services, marketing and prices also need to be improved by the
    authorities when a market-oriented farming system is emerging. A high competitive use of the
    communal properties, particularly by large-scale farms, sometimes caused social conflicts and
    environmental harms. However, livestock was regarded to improve soils and the local ecosystem.
    Beef buffaloes and beef cattle can cope with the economic needs of the households as well as
    improve farmers' socio-economic status and livelihoods substantially. As market-oriented
    production systems are becoming more important than subsistent systems, livestock husbandry,
    government services and livestock marketing need to be developed in order to improve the
    productivity of livestock farming and consequently farmers' livelihoods. As regarding their high
    potential for beef production, effective water management strategies should be deliberately
    considered to alleviate the drastic decline of the buffalo population and to promote beef buffalo
    farm enterprises. Furthermore, community and environmental antagonists related to livestock
    farming need to be taken into account in the policies and promotions.

      



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